Unlike 'non-directional' light bulbs, which emit light in every direction, spotlights are 'directional,' so they focus their light in one particular direction. Tiny reflectors on the inside surface of the spotlight focus and direct its beam much more efficiently and intensely. This makes them ideal for task lighting in the home and workplace, as well as for retail and display lighting.
For a long time, halogen spotlights were the most common type, until they fell under the remit of an EU ban and were superseded by LED spotlights. These bulbs offer the same brightness as their halogen counterparts, but use only a fraction of the energy to do so.